WELCOME TO HOMOEOPATHIC MANAGEMENT OF CHRONIC
DISEASE IN OUR CLINIC
HOMOEOPATHIC AWARENESS CAMPAIGN- MANAGEMENT OF CHRONIC
the disease person not the disease. Homoeopathic
physician regards his patients from holistic concept
and not from diagnosis of the disease. Hence the
homoeopathic physician takes all the symptoms of
the patient in arriving at his remedy. How ever
for making the public aware of diseases that can
be cured by homoeopathy we use diagnostic terms
There have been notion that homoeopathy is useful
for children. But it is useful for all the types
of diseases in all ages and in both sexes.
HOMOEOPATHY FOR CHILDREN
Babies receiving homoeopathic treatment form the beginning itself is outstanding both physically and mentally and there by contribute to healthy development of the individual.
Measles, mumps, whooping cough, chicken pox, etc can be prevented and treated effectively by homoeopathy.
Children undergoing homoeopathic treatment right from childbirth will be outstanding both physically and mentally.
Women having all types of menstrual irregularities,
uterine tumors, and all other related diseases can
be treated more effectively and efficiently by homoeopathic
Pregnant women taking homoeopathic drug
will contribute to health of both expectant mother
and fetus in uterus.
Giving Homoeopathic treatment to various diseases
of expectant mother such as diabetic, pregnancy
induced hypertension, anemia, headaches, will contribute
to health of both mother and child.
from various diseases after childbirth such as excessive
prostration even after eating, anemia, and stress
related problems could be treated efficiently in
shortest period of time.
HOMOEOPATHY FOR OLD AGE
Homoeopathy can contribute to efficient treatment
of suffering from old age since homeopathic treatment
is without any side effect.
HOMOEOPATHY FOR ALL
Disease caused by Drug addiction, smoking, alcoholism
can be efficiently treated byhomoeopathy.
More than 50%of surgical diseases can be effectively
treated by homoeopathy. More than fifty percentages
of incurable diseases like cancer can be treated
effectively in the initial stage, and also to control
it in the second stage without any complication
where in the patient have to strictly adhere to
rigid control measures including food control. So
if the cancer is in initial stage you must consult
a homoeopathy doctor before radiation and chemotherapy.
Skin diseases like eczema, warts, molluscum contageoaum,
acne (face eruption) can be controlled by
homoeopathic remedies. Any darkening of skin
can be controlled.
Vitiligo or unpigmented white patches all over the
body can be effectively treated by homoeopathy.
All sexual transmitted diseases like syphilis,
gonorrhea, venereal warts, genital herpes etc
type of sexual disorders such as male sexual dysfunction,
female sexual dysfunction, maleerectile dysfunction,
dyspareunia /painful sexual intercourse etc can
be treated effectively by homoeopathic remedy.
Psycho neurotic disease, anxiety neurosis, hysteria, hypochondriasis, lack of confidence etc can be treated efficiently.
If a person with mental disorder, which is part of day today’s life such as depression, tension, is undergoing homoeopathic treatment, he/she can regain his mind body balance and effectively contribute to both mental and physical harmony, and help him/her to come back to harmonious mainstream active life.
Even though genetic disorders cannot be cured completely, homoeopathy helps such persons to maintain 30 to 80 percentage of mind –body balance there by contribute to effective social life and personal life.
Head ache, migraine, heart diseases, asthma, ulcer,
piles or hemorrhoids, leucorrhoea or discharge from
vagina, fibroids, ulcer, ulcerative colitis, diseases
associated with thyroid can be effectively treated
Cholera is a water-borne disease caused by the
bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which is typically ingested
by drinking contaminated water, or by eating improperly
cooked fish, especially shellfish. This phenomenon
was first described in a scientific manner by the
Portuguese physician Garcia de Orta (1563). Europe
witnessed several epidemics in the 19th century,
but the disease is since mostly seen in Third World
countries, due to poor water infrastructure.
Approximately 1 in 20 infected persons has severe
disease characterized by:
profuse watery diarrhea,
In these persons, rapid loss of body fluids leads
to dehydration and shock. Without treatment, death
can occur within hours.
Smallpox (also known by the Latin
names Variola or Variola vera) was a highly contagious
viral disease unique to humans. It is caused by
two virus variants calledVariola major and Variola
minor. V. major is the more deadly form, with a
typical mortality of 20–40 percent of those infected.
The other type, V. minor, only kills 1% of its victims.
Many survivors are left blind in one or both eyes
from corneal ulcerations, and persistent skin scarring—pockmarks—is
nearly universal. Smallpox was responsible for an
estimated 300–500 million deaths in the 20th century.
As recently as 1967, the World Health Organization
(WHO) estimated that 15 million people contracted
the disease and that two million died in that year.
After successful vaccination
campaigns, in 1979 the WHO certified the eradication
of smallpox, though cultures of the virus are kept
by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
(CDC) in the United States and at the Institute
of Virus Preparations in Siberia, Russia.
The variola virus causes smallpox.
Under high magnification, variola particles look
like rectangles with a deeply patterned surface.
They're sometimes referred to as bricks. Each brick
is composed of at least a hundred different proteins.
Although extraordinarily large for a virus, 3 million
smallpox bricks lined end to end would be no larger
than the period at the end of a sentence.
Once you're infected, the virus
immediately begins replicating inside your cells
— first in the lymph nodes and then in your spleen
and bone marrow. Eventually, the virus settles in
the blood vessels in your skin and the mucous membranes
of your nose and throat. When the lesions in your
mouth slough off, large amounts of virus are released
into your saliva. This is when you're most likely
to transmit the disease to others.
How smallpox spreads
Smallpox usually requires face-to-face
contact to spread. It's most often transmitted in
air droplets when an infected person coughs, sneezes
or talks. Inhaling a single particle may be enough
to cause infection. In rare instances, airborne
particles may spread through the ventilation system
in a building, infecting people in other rooms or
on other floors. Smallpox also can spread through
contact with contaminated clothing and bedding,
although the risk of infection from these sources
Smallpox outbreaks typically
occur in two-week intervals. Initially, just a few
people get sick. Fourteen days later, a larger number
of people develop the disease, and in another two
weeks, even more cases appear. This pattern reflects
the incubation period of the virus as well as its
Two main forms of smallpox exist:
This is a milder
form of the disease and causes a less serious
illness. It's fatal in less than 1 percent of
people who contract it.
this form of the disease kills one-third of
the people it infects.
There are also
two rare forms of smallpox:
This form is
characterized by a red, pinpoint rash and bleeding
in the skin and mucous membranes. In some cases,
hemorrhagic smallpox may destroy the entire
skin surface and all mucous membranes. Hemorrhagic
smallpox is almost always fatal within five
to seven days.
This form is
also often fatal. The early signs and symptoms
are similar to other forms of the disease, but
the lesions are velvety and never become filled
with pus. Eventually, the skin takes on a rubbery
appearance. Bleeding in the skin and intestinal
tract also may occur.
The first symptoms of smallpox
usually appear 12 to14 days after you're infected.
During the incubation period of seven to 17 days,
you look and feel healthy and can't infect others.
Following the incubation period,
a sudden onset of flu-like signs and symptoms occurs.
A feeling of bodily discomfort (malaise)
Severe fatigue (prostration)
Severe back pain
A few days later, the characteristic
smallpox rash appears as flat, red spots (lesions).
Within a day or two, many of these lesions turn
into small blisters filled with clear fluid (vesicles)
and later, with pus (pustules). The rash appears
first on your face, hands and forearms and later
on the trunk. It's usually most noticeable on the
palms of your hands and the soles of your feet.
Lesions also develop in the mucous membranes of
your nose and mouth. The way the lesions are distributed
is a hallmark of smallpox and a primary way of diagnosing
When the pustules erupt, the
skin doesn't break, but actually separates from
its underlying layers. The pain can be excruciating.
Scabs begin to form eight to nine days later and
eventually fall off, leaving deep, pitted scars.
All lesions in a given area progress at the same
rate through these stages. People who don't recover
usually die during the second week of illness.
In the past, smallpox was sometimes confused with
chickenpox, a childhood infection that's seldom
deadly. Yet chickenpox differs from smallpox in
several important ways:
and location of lesions.
are much more superficial than are those of
smallpox and occur primarily on the trunk, rather
than on the face, arms and hands.
see a combination of scabs, vesicles and pustules
in someone with chickenpox. In smallpox, all
of the lesions in a given area are at the same
A person infected
with chickenpox can unknowingly transmit the
virus to others before symptoms ever develop.
But smallpox becomes infectious only when signs
and symptoms appear and remains contagious until
scabs fall from the pustules. According to the
World Health Organization (WHO), smallpox is
most contagious after the fever starts and during
the first week of the rash. You're less likely
to become infected if you're exposed to someone
in the later stages of the disease.
Chikungunya Virus, also known
as Buggy Creek Virus, is transmitted by Aedes aegypti
mosquito bites. The virus belongs to the Family
-Togoviridae, and the Genus is Alpha virus. Till
date there has been no reported direct person-to-person
The mosquitoes that cause infection
due to the Chikungunya virus in Africa and Asia
are the same mosquitoes that cause yellow fever
and dengue fever in many parts of the world. Hence
many parts of the world could be affected by the
The incubation period is usually
1-12 days. This means the disease manifests 1 to
12 days after the bite of the mosquito. The symptoms
and signs include the following:
Fever (> 40 C, 104 F)
Joint pain (or arthralgia)
Arthritis affecting multiple joints that can be
Swelling of Joints
Rash (May occur rarely)
Sometimes there maybe infection of the conjunctiva
of the eye and some photophobia.
Bleeding or hemorrhage (May occur rarely).
In one study over 12% of patients who contract Chikungunya
virus infection develop chronic joint symptoms(4).
Some typical clinical symptoms
Routine blood count to look at platelets as sometimes
the platelet count may fall.
Blood Serology For detection of antigens or antibiotics.
IgM capture ELISA To help distinguish the disease
from dengue fever.
Chikungunya - CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT
or specific antiviral treatment for chikungunya
fever is available. Treatment is symptomatic--rest,
fluids, and ibuprofen, naproxen, acetaminophen,
or paracetamol may relieve symptoms of fever and
aching. Aspirin should be avoided.
should be protected from further mosquito exposure
(staying indoors and/or under a mosquito net during
the first few days of illness) so that they can't
contribute to the transmission cycle.
- HOMEOPATHIC TREATMENT
Homeopathy offers many medicines
which may help in Chikungunya. Genus epidemicus
is considered in case of epidemic out break.
Chickenpox is one of the classic
childhood diseases, and one of the most contagious.
The affected child or adult may develop hundreds
of itchy, fluid-filled blisters that burst and form
crusts. Chickenpox is caused by a virus.
The virus that causes chickenpox
is varicella-zoster, a member of the herpesvirus
family. The same virus also causes herpes zoster
(shingles) in adults. When someone becomes infected,
the pox usually appear 10 to 21 days later. People
become contagious 1 to 2 days before breaking out
with pox. They remain contagious while uncrusted
blisters are present.
Once you catch chickenpox, the
virus usually remains in your body for your lifetime,
kept in check by the immune system. About 1 in 10
adults will experience shingles when the virus re-emerges
during a period of stress. Most cases of chickenpox
occur in children younger than ten. The disease
is usually mild, although serious complications
sometimes occur. Adults and older children usually
get sicker than younger children do.
Children under one year of age
whose mothers have had chickenpox are not very likely
to catch it. If they do, they often have mild cases
because they retain partial immunity from their
mothers' blood. Children under one year of age whose
mothers have not had chickenpox, or whose inborn
immunity has already waned, can get severe chickenpox.
The pox are worse in children who have other skin
problems, such as eczema or a recent sunburn.
Complications are more common
in those who are immunocompromised from an illness
or medicines like chemotherapy. Some of the worst
cases of chickenpox have been seen in children who
have taken steroids (for example, for asthma) during
the incubation period, before they have any symptoms.
Most children with chickenpox
act sick with vague symptoms, such as a fever, headache,
tummy ache, or loss of appetite, for a day or two
before breaking out in the classic pox rash. These
symptoms last 2 to 4 days after breaking out.
The average child develops 250
to 500 small, itchy, fluid-filled blisters over
red spots on the skin (“dew drops on a rose petal”).
The blisters often appear first on the face, trunk,
or scalp and spread from there. Appearance of the
small blisters on the scalp, found in 80% of cases,
clinches the diagnosis. After a day or two, the
blisters become cloudy and then scab. Meanwhile,
new crops of blisters spring up in groups. The pox
often appear in the mouth, in the vagina, and on
the eyelids. Children with skin problems such as
eczema may get more than 1,500 pox.
Most pox will not leave scars
unless they become contaminated with bacteria from
scratching. Some children who have had the vaccine
will still develop a mild case of chickenpox. They
usually recover much quicker and only have a few
pox (< 30). These often do not follow the classic
descriptions of the disease. However, these mild,
post-vaccine cases are contagious.
Chickenpox is usually diagnosed
from the classic rash and the child's medical history.
Blood tests, and tests of the pox blisters themselves,
can confirm the diagnosis if there is any question.
Influenza, commonly known
as the flu, is an infectious disease of birds
and mammals caused by an RNA virus of the family
Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). In people,
common symptoms of influenza are fever, sore throat,
muscle pains, severe headache, coughing, and weakness
and fatigue. In more serious cases, influenza causes
pneumonia, which can be fatal, particularly in young
children and the elderly. Although the common cold
is sometimes confused with influenza, it is a much
less severe disease and caused by a different virus.
Similarly, gastroenteritis is sometimes called "stomach
flu" or "24-hour flu", but is unrelated to influenza.
Types of influenza
The influenza virus is an RNA
virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae, which comprises
the influenzaviruses, Isavirus and Thogotovirus.
There are three types of influenza virus: Influenzavirus
A, Influenzavirus B or Influenzavirus C. Influenza
A and C infect multiple species, while influenza
B almost exclusively infects humans.
Flu; Influenza A; Influenza B
The flu is a contagious
infection of the nose, throat, and lungs caused
by the influenza virus.
and risk factors
The flu usually
begins abruptly, with a fever between 102 to 106°F.
(An adult typically has a lower fever than a child.)
Other common symptoms include a flushed face, body
aches, and lack of energy. Some people have dizziness
or vomiting. The fever usually lasts for a day or
two, but can last 5 days.
day 2 and day 4 of the illness, the "whole body"
symptoms begin to subside, and respiratory symptoms
begin to increase. The flu virus can settle anywhere
in the respiratory tract, producing symptoms of
a cold, croup, sore throat, bronchiolitis, ear infection,
The most prominent
of the respiratory symptoms is usually a dry, hacking
cough. Most people also develop a sore throat and
headache. Nasal discharge (runny nose) and sneezing
are common. These symptoms (except the cough) usually
disappear within 4-7 days. Sometimes, the fever
returns. Cough and tiredness usually last for weeks
after the rest of the illness is over.
The flu usually
arrives in the winter months. The most common way
to catch the flu is by breathing in droplets from
coughs or sneezes. Less often, it is spread when
you touch a surface such as a faucet handle or phone
that has the virus on it, and then touch your own
mouth, nose, or eyes.
1-7 days later (usually within 2-3 days). Because
the flu spreads through the air and is very contagious,
it often strikes a community all at once. This creates
a cluster of school and work absences. Within 2
or 3 weeks of its arrival in a school, many student
have become sick.
Tens of millions
of people in the United States get the flu each
year. Most get better within a week or two, but
thousands become sick enough to be hospitalized.
About 36,000 people died each year from complications
of the flu.
Anyone at any age
can have serious complications from the flu, but
those at highest risk include:
People over 50
Children between 6 months and 2 years
Women more than 3 months pregnant during the flu season
Anyone living in a long-term care facility
Anyone with chronic heart, lung, or kidney conditions, diabetes, or
weakened immune system
confuse cold and flu, which share some of the same
symptoms and typically occur at the same time of
the year. However, the two diseases are very different.
Most people get a cold several times each year,
and the flu only once every several years.
People often use
the term "stomach flu" to describe a viral illness
where vomiting or diarrhea are the main symptoms.
This is incorrect, as the stomach symptoms are not
caused by the flu virus. Flu infections are primarily
Fever - may be high
Stuffy, congested nose
Muscle aches and stiffness
Shortness of breath
Loss of appetite
Worsening of underlying illness, such as asthma or heart failure
Known flu pandemics
Name of pandemic
1 to 1.5 million
Hong Kong Flu
0.75 to 1 million
The serotypes that
have been confirmed in humans, ordered by the number
of known human pandemic deaths, are:
H1N1 has mutated
into various strains including the Spanish Flu strain
(now extinct in the wild), mild human flu strains,
endemic pig strains, and various strains found in
variant of H1N1 was responsible for the Spanish
flu pandemic that killed some 50 million to 100
million people worldwide over about a year in 1918
a subtype of the species Influenza A virus (sometimes
called bird flu virus). H2N2 has mutated into various
strains including the Asian Flu strain (now extinct
in the wild), H3N2, and various strains found in
It is suspected of causing a human pandemic in 1889.
"Hong Kong Flu".H3N2is a subtype of the
influenza A virus. Its name derives from the
forms of the two kinds proteins on the surface
of its coat, hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase
(N). H3N2 viruses infect humans and pigs, though
in each species the virus has mutated into many
strains. H3N2 exchanges genes for internal proteins
with other influenza subtypes
AVIAN INFLUENZAis a pandemic threat in 2006-7 flu season. Also known asA(H5N1)orH5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza
A virus that can cause illness in humans and
many other animal species. A bird-adapted strain
of H5N1, calledHPAI A(H5N1)"highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
of type A of subtype H5N1", is the causative
agent of H5N1 flu, commonly known as "avian
influenza" or "bird flu". It is endemic in many
bird populations, especially in Southeast Asia.
One strain of HPAI A(H5N1) is spreading globally
after first appearing in Asia. It is epizootic
(an epidemic in nonhumans) and panzootic (affecting
animals of many species, especially over a wide
area), killing tens of millions of birds and
spurring the culling of hundreds of millions
of others to stem its spread. Most mentions
of "bird flu" and H5N1 in the media refer to
Avian influenza, or “bird flu”, is a contagious
disease of animals caused by viruses that normally
infect only birds and, less commonly, pigs. Avian
influenza viruses are highly species-specific, but
have, on rare occasions, crossed the species barrier
to infect humans.
In domestic poultry,
infection with avian influenza viruses causes two
main forms of disease, distinguished by low and
high extremes of virulence. The so-called “low pathogenic”
form commonly causes only mild symptoms (ruffled
feathers, a drop in egg production) and may easily
go undetected. The highly pathogenic form is far
more dramatic. It spreads very rapidly through poultry
flocks, causes disease affecting multiple internal
organs, and has a mortality that can approach 100%,
often within 48 hours.
The widespread persistence
of H5N1 in poultry populations poses two main risks
for human health.
The first is the
risk of direct infection when the virus passes from
poultry to humans, resulting in very severe disease.
Of the few avian influenza viruses that have crossed
the species barrier to infect humans, H5N1 has caused
the largest number of cases of severe disease and
death in humans. Unlike normal seasonal influenza,
where infection causes only mild respiratory symptoms
in most people, the disease caused by H5N1 follows
an unusually aggressive clinical course, with rapid
deterioration and high fatality. Primary viral pneumonia
and multi-organ failure are common. In the present
outbreak, more than half of those infected with
the virus have died. Most cases have occurred in
previously healthy children and young adults.
A second risk, of
even greater concern, is that the virus – if given
enough opportunities – will change into a form that
is highly infectious for humans and spreads easily
from person to person. Such a change could mark
the start of a global outbreak (a pandemic).
Do migratory birds
spread highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses?
The role of migratory
birds in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza
is not fully understood. Wild waterfowl are considered
the natural reservoir of all influenza A viruses.
They have probably carried influenza viruses, with
no apparent harm, for centuries. They are known
to carry viruses of the H5 and H7 subtypes, but
usually in the low pathogenic form. Considerable
circumstantial evidence suggests that migratory
birds can introduce low pathogenic H5 and H7 viruses
to poultry flocks, which then mutate to the highly
In the past, highly
pathogenic viruses have been isolated from migratory
birds on very rare occasions involving a few birds,
usually found dead within the flight range of a
poultry outbreak. This finding long suggested that
wild waterfowl are not agents for the onward transmission
of these viruses.
Recent events make
it likely that some migratory birds are now directly
spreading the H5N1 virus in its highly pathogenic
form. Further spread to new areas is expected.
contact with infected poultry, or surfaces and objects
contaminated by their faeces, is presently considered
the main route of human infection. To date, most
human cases have occurred in rural or periurban
areas where many households keep small poultry flocks,
which often roam freely, sometimes entering homes
or sharing outdoor areas where children play. As
infected birds shed large quantities of virus in
their faeces, opportunities for exposure to infected
droppings or to environments contaminated by the
virus are abundant under such conditions. Moreover,
because many households in Asia depend on poultry
for income and food, many families sell or slaughter
and consume birds when signs of illness appear in
a flock, and this practice has proved difficult
to change. Exposure is considered most likely during
slaughter, defeathering, butchering, and preparation
of poultry for cooking.
H7N7 has unusual
a subtype of the species Influenza A virus (sometimes
called bird flu virus). Both highly pathogenic strains
(HPAI) and low pathogenic strains (LPAI) exist.
H7N7 can infect humans, birds, pigs, seals, and
horses in the wild; and have infected mice in laboratory
studies. This unusual zoonotic potential represents
a pandemic threat.In 2003 in the Netherlands 89
people were confirmed to have the H7N7 influenza
virus infection following an outbreak in poultry
on several farms. One death was recorded.
H1N2is endemic in
humans and pigs.
H9N2:H9N2is a subtype
of the species Influenza A virus (sometimes
called bird flu virus). In 1999 and 2003, an
H9N2 influenza strain caused illness in three
people in Hong Kong.H9N2 influenza viruses of
domestic ducks have become established in the
domestic poultry of Asia. Phylogenetic and antigenic
analyses of the H9N2 viruses isolated from Hong
Kong markets suggest three distinct sublineages,
H7N2:H7N2is a subtype
of the species Influenza A virus (sometimes
called bird flu virus). One person in New York
in 2003 and one person in Virginia in 2002 were
found to have serologic evidence of infection
with H7N2. Both fully recovered.
In February 2004, an outbreak of low pathogenic avian influena (LPAI) A (H7N2)
was reported on 2 chicken farms in Delaware and
in four live bird markets in New Jersey supplied
by the farms. In March 2004, surveillance samples
from a flock of chickens in Maryland tested positive
for LPAI H7N2. It is likely that this was the same
H7N3In North America,
the presence of H7N3 was confirmed at several
poultry farms in British Columbia in February
2004. As of April 2004, 18 farms had been quarantined
to halt the spread of the virus. Two cases of
humans infected with it have been confirmed
in that region. Symptoms included conjunctivitis
and mild influenza-like illness. Both fully
is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus
(sometimes called bird flu virus). In 2004 in
Egypt H10N7 was reported for the first time
in humans. It caused illness in two one-year
old infants, residents of Ismaillia, Egypt.
One child’s father is a poultry merchant.
infectious disease caused by a virus carried by
Aedes aegyptii mosquitoes and most often found in
hot climates. Symptoms include rash, fever, headaches,
and severe muscle and joint pain. The pain is so
severe, its nickname is “breakbone fever.”
Dengue fever is caused by several related viruses
(four different arboviruses). It is transmitted
by the bite of mosquitoes, most commonlyAedes aegypti, found in tropic and
subtropic regions. This includes portions of Southeast
Asia, the Indonesian archipelago into northeastern
Australia, parts of sub-Saharan Africa, and parts
of South and Central America.
Dengue fever begins with sudden onset of a high
fever, often to 104-105 degrees Fahrenheit, headache,
and slightly later the appearance of severe joint
and muscle pains.
A flat, red rash may appear over most of the body
early during the fever. A second rash, measles-like
in appearance, appears later in the disease. Infected
people may have increased skin sensitivity and are
muscle aches (myalgia)
joint aches (arthralgia)
enlarged lymph nodes
disease is manifested by a sudden onset of fever,
with severe headache, muscle and joint pains (myalgias
and arthralgias — severe pain gives it the namebreak-bone
feverorbonecrusher disease) and rashes; the
dengue rash is characteristically bright red petechia
and usually appears first on the lower limbs and
the chest - in some patients, it spreads to cover
most of the body. There may also be gastritis with
some combination of associated abdominal pain, nausea,
vomiting or diarrhea.
Some cases develop
much milder symptoms, which can, when no rash is
present, be misdiagnosed as a flu or other viral
infection. Thus, travelers from tropical areas may
inadvertently pass on dengue in their home countries,
having not being properly diagnosed at the height
of their illness. Patients with dengue can only
pass on the infection through mosquitoes or blood
products while they are still febrile.
The classic dengue
fever lasts about six to seven days, with a smaller
peak of fever at the trailing end of the fever (the
so-called "biphasic pattern"). Clinically, the platelet
count will drop until the patient's temperature
exists a WHO definition of dengue haemorrhagic fever
that has been in use since 1975; all four criteria
must be fulfilled:
tendency (positive tourniquet test, spontaneous
bruising, bleeding from mucosa, gingiva, injection
sites, etc.; vomiting blood, or bloody diarrhea)
(<100 platelets per mm³ or estimated as less than
3 platelets per high power field)
of plasma leakage (hematocrit more than 20% higher
than expected, or drop in haematocrit of 20% or
more from baseline following IV fluid, pleural effusion,
Atourniquet testdetermines capillary fragility.It is also
known as a Rumpel-Leede Capillary-Fragility Test
or simply a capillary fragility test. It is a clinical
diagnostic method to determine bleeding tendencies
in a person who might have a disease such as dengue
fever. It assesses fragility of capillary walls,
evaluates bleeding tendencies, and identifies thrombocytopenia
(a reduced platelet count).
In dengue, the test
is defined by the WHO. A blood pressure cuff is
inflated to a point between the systolic and diastolic
blood pressures for five minutes. The test is positive
if there are more than 20 petechiae per square inch
(a petechia is a small red or purple spot on the
body, caused by a minor hemorrhage).
There have been
large number of medicines . Homoeopathic mangement
is based on genus epidemicus in case of epidemic.
Also known asrubeola, is a disease caused by a
virus, specifically a paramyxovirus of the genusMorbillivirus.Measles is a highly
contagious viral illness characterized by a fever,
cough, conjunctivitis (redness and irritation in
membranes of the eyes), and spreading rash.
The incubation period
usually lasts for 4-12 days (during which there
are no symptoms).
and risk factors
Measles is caused
by a virus. The infection is spread by contact with
droplets from the nose, mouth, or throat of an infected
person. The incubation period is 8 to 12 days before
symptoms generally appear.
Immunity to the
disease occurs after vaccination or active infection.
immunization, measles was so common during childhood
that the majority of the population had been infected
by age 20. Measles cases dropped over the last several
decades to virtually none in the U.S. and Canada
because of widespread immunization, but rates have
crept up again recently.
Some parents are
refusing to have their children vaccinated because
of fears that the MMR vaccine, which protects against
Measles, Mumps, and Rubella, can cause autism.
Large studies of
thousands of children have found no connection between
this vaccine and the development of autism, however,
lower vaccination rates can cause outbreaks of measles,
mumps, and rubella -- which can be serious.
tiny white spots inside the mouth (called Koplik's spots)
photophobia (light sensitivity)
appears around the fifth day of the disease
may last 4 to 7 days
usually starts on the head and spreads to
other areas, progressing downward
maculopapular rash -- appears as both macules
(flat, discolored areas) and papules (solid,
red, elevated areas) that later merge together
itching of the rash
Note: The period between the appearance of the earliest symptoms and the appearance
of a rash or fever is usually 3 to 5 days
of measles requires a history of fever of at least
three days together with at least one of the threeCs. Observation of Koplik's spots
is also diagnostic of measles.
diagnosis of measles can be done with confirmation
of positive measles IgM antibodies or isolation
of measles virus RNA from respiratory specimens.
with other patients known to have measles adds strong
epidemiological evidence to the diagnosis.
spots inside the mouth that are highly characteristic
of the early phase of measles (rubeola). The spots
look like a tiny grains of white sand, each surrounded
by a red ring. They are found especially on the
inside of the cheek (the buccal mucosa) opposite
the 1st and 2nd upper molars. Named for the New
York pediatrician Henry Koplik (1858-1927) who described
There have been
large number of medicines both for preventive as
well as for treatment.
is a disease caused by the mosquito-borne Japanese
encephalitis virus. The Japanese encephalitis virus
is a virus from the family Flaviviridae. Domestic
pigs and wild birds are reservoirs of the virus;
transmission to humans may cause severe symptoms.
One of the most important vectors of this disease
is the mosquitoCulex tritaeniorhynchus. This disease
is most prevalent in Southeast Asia and the Far
has an incubation period of 5 to 15 days and the
vast majority of infections are asymptomatic: only
1 in 250 infections develop into encephalitis.
Severe rigors mark
the onset of this disease in humans. Fever, headache
and malaise are other non-specific symptoms of this
disease which may last for a period between 1 to
6 days. Signs which develop during the acute encephalitic
stage include neck rigidity, cachexia, hemiparesis,
convulsions and a raised body temperature between
38 and 41 degrees Celsius. Mental retardation developed
from this disease usually leads to coma. Mortality
of this disease varies but is generally much higher
in children. Life-long neurological defects such
as deafness, emotional lability and hemiparesis
may occur in those who have had central nervous
Mild infections occur without apparent symptoms
other than fever with headache. More severe infection
is marked by quick onset, headache, high fever,
neck stiffness, stupor, disorientation, coma, tremors,
occasional convulsions (especially in infants) and
spastic (but rarely flaccid) paralysis.
Treatment is based
on symptom. Genus epidemicus is considered during
an infectious disease caused by a particular type
of bacteria called a spirochete.Leptospirosis(also known asWeil's disease,canicola fever,canefield fever,nanukayami feveror7-day fever) is a bacterial zoonotic
disease caused by spirochaetes of the genusLeptospirathat affects humans and a wide range of animals,
including mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptiles.
It was first described by Adolf Weil in 1886 when
he reported an "acute infectious disease with enlargement
of spleen, jaundice and nephritis". The pathogen,Leptospira-genus bacteria was isolated
in 1907 from post mortem renal tissue slice. Leptospirosis
can be transmitted by rats as well as by skunks,
opossums, raccoons, foxes, and other vermin.
Though being recognised among the world's most common
zoonosis, leptospirosis is a relatively rare bacterial
infection in humans. The infection is commonly transmitted
to humans by allowing fresh water that has been
contaminated by animal urine to come in contact
with unhealed breaks in the skin, eyes or with the
Except for tropical
areas, leptospirosis cases have a relatively distinct
seasonality with most of them occurring August through
September (in the Northern Hemisphere).
Leptospirosis is worldwide. However, it is most
commonly acquired in the tropics. According to the
Center for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately
100 cases of leptospirosis are reported each year
in the United States.
begin from 2 to 25 days after initial direct exposure
to the urine or tissue of an infected animal. This
can even occur via contaminated soil or water. Veterinarians
and farm workers are at particularly high risk.
Incubation period of 2 to 26 days (average 10 days)
illness typically progresses through three phases.
The first phase of symptoms includes headaches,
muscle aches, eye pain with bright lights, followed
by chills and fever. Watering and redness of the
eyes occur and symptoms seem to improve by day 5
The second phase of illness begins after a few days
of feeling pretty well. The initial symptoms recur
with fever and aching with stiffness of the neck.
Some patients develop serious inflammation of the
nerve to the eye, brain, spinal column (meningitis),
or other nerves.
The final third phase, from 2 to 4 weeks after the
initial infection, features recurrent fever and
muscle aching. Less common symptoms relate to disease
of the gallbladder, lungs, and heart.Approximately
7 to 40% of patients may have muscle tenderness,
an enlarged spleen or liver, enlarged lymph glands,
sore throat, muscle rigidity, abnormal lung sounds,
or skin rash
Leptospirosis with liver disease is called Weil's
syndrome and is characterized by yellowing of the
eyes (jaundice) from liver disease. Patients with
Weil's syndrome can also develop kidney disease
and have more serious involvement of the organs
Less common symptoms
include joint aches, bone pain, sore throat, and
and diarrhea (50% of cases)
Dry cough (25-35%
Abrupt onset of
fever, rigors, myalgias, and headache in 75 to 100%
Signs and tests
blood cell (WBC) counts are generally less than
frequently is abnormal.
creatine kinase is found in approximately 50%
40% of patients have minimal to moderate elevations
of liver enzymes.
is most frequently made by serologic (antibody)
is best visualized by dark field microscopy,
silver stain, or fluorescent microscopy.
UnlikeTreponema pallidum,Leptospiracan be grown from blood, urine, and CSF.
It is slow growing and the laboratory needs
to be notified.
of the organism from the blood is successful
in 50% of cases.
cultures become positive during the second week
of the illness and remain so for up to 30 days.
meningitis, respiratory distress and renal interstitial
tubular necrosis, which results in renal failure
and often liver failure (this severe form of the
disease is known asWeil's disease). Cardiovascular problems
are also possible. Approximately 5-50% of severe
leptospirosis cases are fatal, however, such cases
only constitute about 10% of all registered incidents.