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Homoeopathy treats the disease person not the disease. Homoeopathic physician regards his patients from holistic concept and not from diagnosis of the disease. Hence the homoeopathic physician takes all the symptoms of the patient in arriving at his remedy. How ever for making the public aware of diseases that can be cured by homoeopathy we use diagnostic terms here.


There have been notion that homoeopathy is useful for children. But it is useful for all the types of diseases in all ages and in both sexes.



Babies receiving homoeopathic treatment form the beginning itself is outstanding both physically and mentally and there by contribute to healthy development of the individual.


Measles, mumps, whooping cough, chicken pox, etc can be prevented and treated effectively by homoeopathy.


Children undergoing homoeopathic treatment right from childbirth will be outstanding both physically and mentally.

 Management of child with learning difficulty

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Women having all types of menstrual irregularities, uterine tumors, and all other related diseases can be treated more effectively and efficiently by homoeopathic treatment.


Pregnant women taking homoeopathic drug will contribute to health of both expectant mother and fetus in uterus.


Giving Homoeopathic treatment to various diseases of expectant mother such as diabetic, pregnancy induced hypertension, anemia, headaches, will contribute to health of both mother and child.


Mother suffering from various diseases after childbirth such as excessive prostration even after eating, anemia, and stress related problems could be treated efficiently in shortest period of time.



Homoeopathy can contribute to efficient treatment of suffering from old age since homeopathic treatment is without any side effect.



Disease caused by Drug addiction, smoking, alcoholism can be efficiently treated byhomoeopathy.


More than 50%of surgical diseases can be effectively treated by homoeopathy. More than fifty percentages of incurable diseases like cancer can be treated effectively in the initial stage, and also to control it in the second stage without any complication where in the patient have to strictly adhere to rigid control measures including food control. So if the cancer is in initial stage you must consult a homoeopathy doctor before radiation and chemotherapy.



Skin diseases like eczema, warts, molluscum contageoaum, acne (face eruption) can be controlled by homoeopathic remedies. Any darkening of skin can be controlled.


Vitiligo or unpigmented white patches all over the body can be effectively treated by homoeopathy.



All sexual transmitted diseases like syphilis, gonorrhea, venereal warts, genital herpes etc


All type of sexual disorders such as male sexual dysfunction, female sexual dysfunction, maleerectile dysfunction, dyspareunia /painful sexual intercourse etc can be treated effectively by homoeopathic remedy.



Psycho neurotic disease, anxiety neurosis, hysteria, hypochondriasis, lack of confidence etc can be treated efficiently.


If a person with mental disorder, which is part of day today’s life such as depression, tension, is undergoing homoeopathic treatment, he/she can regain his mind body balance and effectively contribute to both mental and physical harmony, and help him/her to come back to harmonious mainstream active life.



Even though genetic disorders cannot be cured completely, homoeopathy helps such persons to maintain 30 to 80 percentage of mind –body balance there by contribute to effective social life and personal life.


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Head ache, migraine, heart diseases, asthma, ulcer, piles or hemorrhoids, leucorrhoea or discharge from vagina, fibroids, ulcer, ulcerative colitis, diseases associated with thyroid can be effectively treated by homoeopathy

Rhinitis or coryza Asthma Tachycardia
Hypertension (HTN) or
high blood pressure
A peptic ulcer MIGRAINE
Specific Phobia Panic Disorder Post-traumatic Stress
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Generalized Anxiety Disorder Dissociative Amnesia
Dissociative Fugue Dissociative Identity Disorder
(old name: "Multiple Personality)
Bipolar Disorder
(Manic-Depressive Disorder)
Hypochondriasis Conversion Disorder Adjustment Disorders
Eating disorders Factitious Disorders Impulse-Control Disorders



Cholera is a water-borne disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which is typically ingested by drinking contaminated water, or by eating improperly cooked fish, especially shellfish. This phenomenon was first described in a scientific manner by the Portuguese physician Garcia de Orta (1563). Europe witnessed several epidemics in the 19th century, but the disease is since mostly seen in Third World countries, due to poor water infrastructure.

Approximately 1 in 20 infected persons has severe disease characterized by:

  • profuse watery diarrhea,
  • vomiting, and
  • leg cramps

In these persons, rapid loss of body fluids leads to dehydration and shock. Without treatment, death can occur within hours.


Based on genus epidemicus in case of epidemic.


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Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) was a highly contagious viral disease unique to humans. It is caused by two virus variants calledVariola major and Variola minor. V. major is the more deadly form, with a typical mortality of 20–40 percent of those infected. The other type, V. minor, only kills 1% of its victims. Many survivors are left blind in one or both eyes from corneal ulcerations, and persistent skin scarring—pockmarks—is nearly universal. Smallpox was responsible for an estimated 300–500 million deaths in the 20th century. As recently as 1967, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that 15 million people contracted the disease and that two million died in that year.

After successful vaccination campaigns, in 1979 the WHO certified the eradication of smallpox, though cultures of the virus are kept by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States and at the Institute of Virus Preparations in Siberia, Russia.



Group I (dsDNA)






Variola vera


The variola virus causes smallpox. Under high magnification, variola particles look like rectangles with a deeply patterned surface. They're sometimes referred to as bricks. Each brick is composed of at least a hundred different proteins. Although extraordinarily large for a virus, 3 million smallpox bricks lined end to end would be no larger than the period at the end of a sentence.

Once you're infected, the virus immediately begins replicating inside your cells — first in the lymph nodes and then in your spleen and bone marrow. Eventually, the virus settles in the blood vessels in your skin and the mucous membranes of your nose and throat. When the lesions in your mouth slough off, large amounts of virus are released into your saliva. This is when you're most likely to transmit the disease to others.

How smallpox spreads

Smallpox usually requires face-to-face contact to spread. It's most often transmitted in air droplets when an infected person coughs, sneezes or talks. Inhaling a single particle may be enough to cause infection. In rare instances, airborne particles may spread through the ventilation system in a building, infecting people in other rooms or on other floors. Smallpox also can spread through contact with contaminated clothing and bedding, although the risk of infection from these sources is slight.

Smallpox outbreaks typically occur in two-week intervals. Initially, just a few people get sick. Fourteen days later, a larger number of people develop the disease, and in another two weeks, even more cases appear. This pattern reflects the incubation period of the virus as well as its exponential spread.

Types of smallpox
Two main forms of smallpox exist:

  • Variola minor. This is a milder form of the disease and causes a less serious illness. It's fatal in less than 1 percent of people who contract it.

  • Variola major. By contrast, this form of the disease kills one-third of the people it infects.

There are also two rare forms of smallpox:

  • Hemorrhagic smallpox. This form is characterized by a red, pinpoint rash and bleeding in the skin and mucous membranes. In some cases, hemorrhagic smallpox may destroy the entire skin surface and all mucous membranes. Hemorrhagic smallpox is almost always fatal within five to seven days.

  • Malignant smallpox. This form is also often fatal. The early signs and symptoms are similar to other forms of the disease, but the lesions are velvety and never become filled with pus. Eventually, the skin takes on a rubbery appearance. Bleeding in the skin and intestinal tract also may occur.


The first symptoms of smallpox usually appear 12 to14 days after you're infected. During the incubation period of seven to 17 days, you look and feel healthy and can't infect others.

Following the incubation period, a sudden onset of flu-like signs and symptoms occurs. These include:

  • Fever
  • A feeling of bodily discomfort (malaise)
  • Headache
  • Severe fatigue (prostration)
  • Severe back pain

A few days later, the characteristic smallpox rash appears as flat, red spots (lesions). Within a day or two, many of these lesions turn into small blisters filled with clear fluid (vesicles) and later, with pus (pustules). The rash appears first on your face, hands and forearms and later on the trunk. It's usually most noticeable on the palms of your hands and the soles of your feet. Lesions also develop in the mucous membranes of your nose and mouth. The way the lesions are distributed is a hallmark of smallpox and a primary way of diagnosing the disease.

When the pustules erupt, the skin doesn't break, but actually separates from its underlying layers. The pain can be excruciating. Scabs begin to form eight to nine days later and eventually fall off, leaving deep, pitted scars. All lesions in a given area progress at the same rate through these stages. People who don't recover usually die during the second week of illness.

Smallpox vs. chickenpox
In the past, smallpox was sometimes confused with chickenpox, a childhood infection that's seldom deadly. Yet chickenpox differs from smallpox in several important ways:

  • Severity and location of lesions. Chickenpox lesions are much more superficial than are those of smallpox and occur primarily on the trunk, rather than on the face, arms and hands.

  • Types of lesions. You'll often see a combination of scabs, vesicles and pustules in someone with chickenpox. In smallpox, all of the lesions in a given area are at the same stage.

  • Timing of transmission. A person infected with chickenpox can unknowingly transmit the virus to others before symptoms ever develop. But smallpox becomes infectious only when signs and symptoms appear and remains contagious until scabs fall from the pustules. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), smallpox is most contagious after the fever starts and during the first week of the rash. You're less likely to become infected if you're exposed to someone in the later stages of the disease.


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Chikungunya Virus, also known as Buggy Creek Virus, is transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquito bites. The virus belongs to the Family -Togoviridae, and the Genus is Alpha virus. Till date there has been no reported direct person-to-person spread.

The mosquitoes that cause infection due to the Chikungunya virus in Africa and Asia are the same mosquitoes that cause yellow fever and dengue fever in many parts of the world. Hence many parts of the world could be affected by the Chikungunya virus.


The incubation period is usually 1-12 days. This means the disease manifests 1 to 12 days after the bite of the mosquito. The symptoms and signs include the following:

Fever (> 40 C, 104 F)


Joint pain (or arthralgia)

Arthritis affecting multiple joints that can be debilitating.

Swelling of Joints

Rash (May occur rarely)

Sometimes there maybe infection of the conjunctiva of the eye and some photophobia.




Bleeding or hemorrhage (May occur rarely).

In one study over 12% of patients who contract Chikungunya virus infection develop chronic joint symptoms(4).


Some typical clinical symptoms

Routine blood count to look at platelets as sometimes the platelet count may fall.

Blood Serology For detection of antigens or antibiotics.

IgM capture ELISA To help distinguish the disease from dengue fever.


No vaccine or specific antiviral treatment for chikungunya fever is available. Treatment is symptomatic--rest, fluids, and ibuprofen, naproxen, acetaminophen, or paracetamol may relieve symptoms of fever and aching. Aspirin should be avoided.

Infected persons should be protected from further mosquito exposure (staying indoors and/or under a mosquito net during the first few days of illness) so that they can't contribute to the transmission cycle.


Homeopathy offers many medicines which may help in Chikungunya. Genus epidemicus is considered in case of epidemic out break.

Chicken pox

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Chickenpox is one of the classic childhood diseases, and one of the most contagious. The affected child or adult may develop hundreds of itchy, fluid-filled blisters that burst and form crusts. Chickenpox is caused by a virus.

The virus that causes chickenpox is varicella-zoster, a member of the herpesvirus family. The same virus also causes herpes zoster (shingles) in adults. When someone becomes infected, the pox usually appear 10 to 21 days later. People become contagious 1 to 2 days before breaking out with pox. They remain contagious while uncrusted blisters are present.

Once you catch chickenpox, the virus usually remains in your body for your lifetime, kept in check by the immune system. About 1 in 10 adults will experience shingles when the virus re-emerges during a period of stress. Most cases of chickenpox occur in children younger than ten. The disease is usually mild, although serious complications sometimes occur. Adults and older children usually get sicker than younger children do.

Children under one year of age whose mothers have had chickenpox are not very likely to catch it. If they do, they often have mild cases because they retain partial immunity from their mothers' blood. Children under one year of age whose mothers have not had chickenpox, or whose inborn immunity has already waned, can get severe chickenpox. The pox are worse in children who have other skin problems, such as eczema or a recent sunburn.

Complications are more common in those who are immunocompromised from an illness or medicines like chemotherapy. Some of the worst cases of chickenpox have been seen in children who have taken steroids (for example, for asthma) during the incubation period, before they have any symptoms.


Most children with chickenpox act sick with vague symptoms, such as a fever, headache, tummy ache, or loss of appetite, for a day or two before breaking out in the classic pox rash. These symptoms last 2 to 4 days after breaking out.

The average child develops 250 to 500 small, itchy, fluid-filled blisters over red spots on the skin (“dew drops on a rose petal”). The blisters often appear first on the face, trunk, or scalp and spread from there. Appearance of the small blisters on the scalp, found in 80% of cases, clinches the diagnosis. After a day or two, the blisters become cloudy and then scab. Meanwhile, new crops of blisters spring up in groups. The pox often appear in the mouth, in the vagina, and on the eyelids. Children with skin problems such as eczema may get more than 1,500 pox.

Most pox will not leave scars unless they become contaminated with bacteria from scratching. Some children who have had the vaccine will still develop a mild case of chickenpox. They usually recover much quicker and only have a few pox (< 30). These often do not follow the classic descriptions of the disease. However, these mild, post-vaccine cases are contagious.

Signs and tests

Chickenpox is usually diagnosed from the classic rash and the child's medical history. Blood tests, and tests of the pox blisters themselves, can confirm the diagnosis if there is any question.


Based on symptoms


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Influenza, commonly known as the flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by an RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). In people, common symptoms of influenza are fever, sore throat, muscle pains, severe headache, coughing, and weakness and fatigue. In more serious cases, influenza causes pneumonia, which can be fatal, particularly in young children and the elderly. Although the common cold is sometimes confused with influenza, it is a much less severe disease and caused by a different virus. Similarly, gastroenteritis is sometimes called "stomach flu" or "24-hour flu", but is unrelated to influenza.

Types of influenza virus

The influenza virus is an RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae, which comprises the influenzaviruses, Isavirus and Thogotovirus. There are three types of influenza virus: Influenzavirus A, Influenzavirus B or Influenzavirus C. Influenza A and C infect multiple species, while influenza B almost exclusively infects humans.

Flu; Influenza A; Influenza B


The flu is a contagious infection of the nose, throat, and lungs caused by the influenza virus.

Causes, incidence, and risk factors  

The flu usually begins abruptly, with a fever between 102 to 106°F. (An adult typically has a lower fever than a child.) Other common symptoms include a flushed face, body aches, and lack of energy. Some people have dizziness or vomiting. The fever usually lasts for a day or two, but can last 5 days.

Somewhere between day 2 and day 4 of the illness, the "whole body" symptoms begin to subside, and respiratory symptoms begin to increase. The flu virus can settle anywhere in the respiratory tract, producing symptoms of a cold, croup, sore throat, bronchiolitis, ear infection, or pneumonia.

The most prominent of the respiratory symptoms is usually a dry, hacking cough. Most people also develop a sore throat and headache. Nasal discharge (runny nose) and sneezing are common. These symptoms (except the cough) usually disappear within 4-7 days. Sometimes, the fever returns. Cough and tiredness usually last for weeks after the rest of the illness is over.

The flu usually arrives in the winter months. The most common way to catch the flu is by breathing in droplets from coughs or sneezes. Less often, it is spread when you touch a surface such as a faucet handle or phone that has the virus on it, and then touch your own mouth, nose, or eyes.

Symptoms appear 1-7 days later (usually within 2-3 days). Because the flu spreads through the air and is very contagious, it often strikes a community all at once. This creates a cluster of school and work absences. Within 2 or 3 weeks of its arrival in a school, many student have become sick.

Tens of millions of people in the United States get the flu each year. Most get better within a week or two, but thousands become sick enough to be hospitalized. About 36,000 people died each year from complications of the flu.

Anyone at any age can have serious complications from the flu, but those at highest risk include:

  • People over 50
  • Children between 6 months and 2 years
  • Women more than 3 months pregnant during the flu season
  • Anyone living in a long-term care facility
  • Anyone with chronic heart, lung, or kidney conditions, diabetes, or weakened immune system

Sometimes people confuse cold and flu, which share some of the same symptoms and typically occur at the same time of the year. However, the two diseases are very different. Most people get a cold several times each year, and the flu only once every several years.

People often use the term "stomach flu" to describe a viral illness where vomiting or diarrhea are the main symptoms. This is incorrect, as the stomach symptoms are not caused by the flu virus. Flu infections are primarily respiratory infections.


  • Fever - may be high
  • Headache
  • Tiredness
  • Dry cough
  • Sore throat
  • Stuffy, congested nose
  • Muscle aches and stiffness

Other symptoms may include:

  • Nasal discharge
  • Shortness of breath
  • Wheezing
  • Croupy cough
  • Chills
  • Fatigue
  • Malaise
  • Sweating
  • Loss of appetite
  • Vomiting
  • Dizziness
  • Worsening of underlying illness, such as asthma or heart failure


Known flu pandemics

Name of pandemic



Subtype involved

Asiatic (Russian) Flu


1 million

possibly H2N2

Spanish Flu


40 million


Asian Flu


1 to 1.5 million


Hong Kong Flu


0.75 to 1 million


The serotypes that have been confirmed in humans, ordered by the number of known human pandemic deaths, are:

  • H1N1 caused "Spanish Flu".

H1N1 has mutated into various strains including the Spanish Flu strain (now extinct in the wild), mild human flu strains, endemic pig strains, and various strains found in birds.

                          A variant of H1N1 was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic that killed some 50 million to 100 million people worldwide over about a year in 1918 and 1919

  • H2N2 caused "Asian Flu".

H2N2 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus (sometimes called bird flu virus). H2N2 has mutated into various strains including the Asian Flu strain (now extinct in the wild), H3N2, and various strains found in birds.

                          It is suspected of causing a human pandemic in 1889.

  • H3N2 caused "Hong Kong Flu".H3N2 is a subtype of the influenza A virus. Its name derives from the forms of the two kinds proteins on the surface of its coat, hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). H3N2 viruses infect humans and pigs, though in each species the virus has mutated into many strains. H3N2 exchanges genes for internal proteins with other influenza subtypes

  • H5N1:   AVIAN INFLUENZA is a pandemic threat in 2006-7 flu season. Also known as A(H5N1) or H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus that can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. A bird-adapted strain of H5N1, called HPAI A(H5N1) "highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1", is the causative agent of H5N1 flu, commonly known as "avian influenza" or "bird flu". It is endemic in many bird populations, especially in Southeast Asia. One strain of HPAI A(H5N1) is spreading globally after first appearing in Asia. It is epizootic (an epidemic in nonhumans) and panzootic (affecting animals of many species, especially over a wide area), killing tens of millions of birds and spurring the culling of hundreds of millions of others to stem its spread. Most mentions of "bird flu" and H5N1 in the media refer to this strain.

                    Avian influenza, or “bird flu”, is a contagious disease of animals caused by viruses that normally infect only birds and, less commonly, pigs. Avian influenza viruses are highly species-specific, but have, on rare occasions, crossed the species barrier to infect humans.

In domestic poultry, infection with avian influenza viruses causes two main forms of disease, distinguished by low and high extremes of virulence. The so-called “low pathogenic” form commonly causes only mild symptoms (ruffled feathers, a drop in egg production) and may easily go undetected. The highly pathogenic form is far more dramatic. It spreads very rapidly through poultry flocks, causes disease affecting multiple internal organs, and has a mortality that can approach 100%, often within 48 hours.

The widespread persistence of H5N1 in poultry populations poses two main risks for human health.

The first is the risk of direct infection when the virus passes from poultry to humans, resulting in very severe disease. Of the few avian influenza viruses that have crossed the species barrier to infect humans, H5N1 has caused the largest number of cases of severe disease and death in humans. Unlike normal seasonal influenza, where infection causes only mild respiratory symptoms in most people, the disease caused by H5N1 follows an unusually aggressive clinical course, with rapid deterioration and high fatality. Primary viral pneumonia and multi-organ failure are common. In the present outbreak, more than half of those infected with the virus have died. Most cases have occurred in previously healthy children and young adults.

A second risk, of even greater concern, is that the virus – if given enough opportunities – will change into a form that is highly infectious for humans and spreads easily from person to person. Such a change could mark the start of a global outbreak (a pandemic).

Do migratory birds spread highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses?

The role of migratory birds in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza is not fully understood. Wild waterfowl are considered the natural reservoir of all influenza A viruses. They have probably carried influenza viruses, with no apparent harm, for centuries. They are known to carry viruses of the H5 and H7 subtypes, but usually in the low pathogenic form. Considerable circumstantial evidence suggests that migratory birds can introduce low pathogenic H5 and H7 viruses to poultry flocks, which then mutate to the highly pathogenic form.

In the past, highly pathogenic viruses have been isolated from migratory birds on very rare occasions involving a few birds, usually found dead within the flight range of a poultry outbreak. This finding long suggested that wild waterfowl are not agents for the onward transmission of these viruses.

Recent events make it likely that some migratory birds are now directly spreading the H5N1 virus in its highly pathogenic form. Further spread to new areas is expected.

 POULTRY:Direct contact with infected poultry, or surfaces and objects contaminated by their faeces, is presently considered the main route of human infection. To date, most human cases have occurred in rural or periurban areas where many households keep small poultry flocks, which often roam freely, sometimes entering homes or sharing outdoor areas where children play. As infected birds shed large quantities of virus in their faeces, opportunities for exposure to infected droppings or to environments contaminated by the virus are abundant under such conditions. Moreover, because many households in Asia depend on poultry for income and food, many families sell or slaughter and consume birds when signs of illness appear in a flock, and this practice has proved difficult to change. Exposure is considered most likely during slaughter, defeathering, butchering, and preparation of poultry for cooking.


  • H7N7 has unusual zoonotic potential.

H7N7 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus (sometimes called bird flu virus). Both highly pathogenic strains (HPAI) and low pathogenic strains (LPAI) exist. H7N7 can infect humans, birds, pigs, seals, and horses in the wild; and have infected mice in laboratory studies. This unusual zoonotic potential represents a pandemic threat.In 2003 in the Netherlands 89 people were confirmed to have the H7N7 influenza virus infection following an outbreak in poultry on several farms. One death was recorded.

  • H1N2 is endemic in humans and pigs.

  • H9N2:H9N2 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus (sometimes called bird flu virus). In 1999 and 2003, an H9N2 influenza strain caused illness in three people in Hong Kong.H9N2 influenza viruses of domestic ducks have become established in the domestic poultry of Asia. Phylogenetic and antigenic analyses of the H9N2 viruses isolated from Hong Kong markets suggest three distinct sublineages,

  • H7N2: H7N2 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus (sometimes called bird flu virus). One person in New York in 2003 and one person in Virginia in 2002 were found to have serologic evidence of infection with H7N2. Both fully recovered.

In February 2004, an outbreak of low pathogenic avian influena (LPAI) A (H7N2) was reported on 2 chicken farms in Delaware and in four live bird markets in New Jersey supplied by the farms. In March 2004, surveillance samples from a flock of chickens in Maryland tested positive for LPAI H7N2. It is likely that this was the same strain.

  • H7N3 In North America, the presence of H7N3 was confirmed at several poultry farms in British Columbia in February 2004. As of April 2004, 18 farms had been quarantined to halt the spread of the virus. Two cases of humans infected with it have been confirmed in that region. Symptoms included conjunctivitis and mild influenza-like illness. Both fully recovered., ,

  • H10N7.H10N7 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus (sometimes called bird flu virus). In 2004 in Egypt H10N7 was reported for the first time in humans. It caused illness in two one-year old infants, residents of Ismaillia, Egypt. One child’s father is a poultry merchant.



       A serious infectious disease caused by a virus carried by Aedes aegyptii mosquitoes and most often found in hot climates. Symptoms include rash, fever, headaches, and severe muscle and joint pain. The pain is so severe, its nickname is “breakbone fever.”


        Dengue fever is caused by several related viruses (four different arboviruses). It is transmitted by the bite of mosquitoes, most commonly Aedes aegypti, found in tropic and subtropic regions. This includes portions of Southeast Asia, the Indonesian archipelago into northeastern Australia, parts of sub-Saharan Africa, and parts of South and Central America.

              Dengue fever begins with sudden onset of a high fever, often to 104-105 degrees Fahrenheit, headache, and slightly later the appearance of severe joint and muscle pains.

             A flat, red rash may appear over most of the body early during the fever. A second rash, measles-like in appearance, appears later in the disease. Infected people may have increased skin sensitivity and are very uncomfortable.


  • fever
  • rashes
  • muscle aches (myalgia)
  • joint aches (arthralgia)
  • headache
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • enlarged lymph nodes

This infectious disease is manifested by a sudden onset of fever, with severe headache, muscle and joint pains (myalgias and arthralgias — severe pain gives it the namebreak-bone fever or bonecrusher disease) and rashes; the dengue rash is characteristically bright red petechia and usually appears first on the lower limbs and the chest - in some patients, it spreads to cover most of the body. There may also be gastritis with some combination of associated abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting or diarrhea.

Some cases develop much milder symptoms, which can, when no rash is present, be misdiagnosed as a flu or other viral infection. Thus, travelers from tropical areas may inadvertently pass on dengue in their home countries, having not being properly diagnosed at the height of their illness. Patients with dengue can only pass on the infection through mosquitoes or blood products while they are still febrile.

The classic dengue fever lasts about six to seven days, with a smaller peak of fever at the trailing end of the fever (the so-called "biphasic pattern"). Clinically, the platelet count will drop until the patient's temperature is normal.



There exists a WHO definition of dengue haemorrhagic fever that has been in use since 1975; all four criteria must be fulfilled:

1.     Fever

2.     Haemorrhagic tendency (positive tourniquet test, spontaneous bruising, bleeding from mucosa, gingiva, injection sites, etc.; vomiting blood, or bloody diarrhea)

3.     Thrombocytopaenia (<100 platelets per mm³ or estimated as less than 3 platelets per high power field)

4.     Evidence of plasma leakage (hematocrit more than 20% higher than expected, or drop in haematocrit of 20% or more from baseline following IV fluid, pleural effusion, ascites, hypoproteinaemia).

positive tourniquet test

A tourniquet test determines capillary fragility.It is also known as a Rumpel-Leede Capillary-Fragility Test or simply a capillary fragility test. It is a clinical diagnostic method to determine bleeding tendencies in a person who might have a disease such as dengue fever. It assesses fragility of capillary walls, evaluates bleeding tendencies, and identifies thrombocytopenia (a reduced platelet count).

In dengue, the test is defined by the WHO. A blood pressure cuff is inflated to a point between the systolic and diastolic blood pressures for five minutes. The test is positive if there are more than 20 petechiae per square inch (a petechia is a small red or purple spot on the body, caused by a minor hemorrhage).


There have been large number of medicines . Homoeopathic mangement is based on genus epidemicus in case of epidemic.



Also known as rubeola, is a disease caused by a virus, specifically a paramyxovirus of the genus Morbillivirus.Measles is a highly contagious viral illness characterized by a fever, cough, conjunctivitis (redness and irritation in membranes of the eyes), and spreading rash.

The incubation period usually lasts for 4-12 days (during which there are no symptoms).

Causes, incidence, and risk factors 

Measles is caused by a virus. The infection is spread by contact with droplets from the nose, mouth, or throat of an infected person. The incubation period is 8 to 12 days before symptoms generally appear.

Immunity to the disease occurs after vaccination or active infection.

Before widespread immunization, measles was so common during childhood that the majority of the population had been infected by age 20. Measles cases dropped over the last several decades to virtually none in the U.S. and Canada because of widespread immunization, but rates have crept up again recently.

Some parents are refusing to have their children vaccinated because of fears that the MMR vaccine, which protects against Measles, Mumps, and Rubella, can cause autism.

Large studies of thousands of children have found no connection between this vaccine and the development of autism, however, lower vaccination rates can cause outbreaks of measles, mumps, and rubella -- which can be serious.


  • sore throat
  • runny nose
  • cough
  • muscle pain
  • fever
  • bloodshot eyes
  • tiny white spots inside the mouth (called Koplik's spots)
  • photophobia (light sensitivity)
  • rash
    • appears around the fifth day of the disease
    • may last 4 to 7 days
    • usually starts on the head and spreads to other areas, progressing downward
    • maculopapular rash -- appears as both macules (flat, discolored areas) and papules (solid, red, elevated areas) that later merge together (confluent)
  • itching of the rash

Note: The period between the appearance of the earliest symptoms and the appearance of a rash or fever is usually 3 to 5 days


Clinical diagnosis of measles requires a history of fever of at least three days together with at least one of the three Cs. Observation of Koplik's spots is also diagnostic of measles.

Alternatively, laboratory diagnosis of measles can be done with confirmation of positive measles IgM antibodies or isolation of measles virus RNA from respiratory specimens.

Positive contact with other patients known to have measles adds strong epidemiological evidence to the diagnosis.

Koplik's spots

   Little spots inside the mouth that are highly characteristic of the early phase of measles (rubeola). The spots look like a tiny grains of white sand, each surrounded by a red ring. They are found especially on the inside of the cheek (the buccal mucosa) opposite the 1st and 2nd upper molars. Named for the New York pediatrician Henry Koplik (1858-1927) who described them.


There have been large number of medicines both for preventive as well as for  treatment.



Japanese encephalitis  is a disease caused by the mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis virus. The Japanese encephalitis virus is a virus from the family Flaviviridae. Domestic pigs and wild birds are reservoirs of the virus; transmission to humans may cause severe symptoms. One of the most important vectors of this disease is the mosquito Culex tritaeniorhynchus. This disease is most prevalent in Southeast Asia and the Far East.


Group IV ((+)ssRNA)







Japanese encephalitis virus




Japanese encephalitis has an incubation period of 5 to 15 days and the vast majority of infections are asymptomatic: only 1 in 250 infections develop into encephalitis.

Severe rigors mark the onset of this disease in humans. Fever, headache and malaise are other non-specific symptoms of this disease which may last for a period between 1 to 6 days. Signs which develop during the acute encephalitic stage include neck rigidity, cachexia, hemiparesis, convulsions and a raised body temperature between 38 and 41 degrees Celsius. Mental retardation developed from this disease usually leads to coma. Mortality of this disease varies but is generally much higher in children. Life-long neurological defects such as deafness, emotional lability and hemiparesis may occur in those who have had central nervous system involvement.

                                  Mild infections occur without apparent symptoms other than fever with headache. More severe infection is marked by quick onset, headache, high fever, neck stiffness, stupor, disorientation, coma, tremors, occasional convulsions (especially in infants) and spastic (but rarely flaccid) paralysis.


Treatment is based on symptom. Genus epidemicus is considered during epidemic.



Leptospirosis is an infectious disease caused by a particular type of bacteria called a spirochete. Leptospirosis (also known as Weil's disease, canicola fever,canefield fever, nanukayami fever or 7-day fever) is a bacterial zoonotic disease caused by spirochaetes of the genus Leptospira that affects humans and a wide range of animals, including mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptiles. It was first described by Adolf Weil in 1886 when he reported an "acute infectious disease with enlargement of spleen, jaundice and nephritis". The pathogen, Leptospira-genus bacteria was isolated in 1907 from post mortem renal tissue slice. Leptospirosis can be transmitted by rats as well as by skunks, opossums, raccoons, foxes, and other vermin.

                          Though being recognised among the world's most common zoonosis, leptospirosis is a relatively rare bacterial infection in humans. The infection is commonly transmitted to humans by allowing fresh water that has been contaminated by animal urine to come in contact with unhealed breaks in the skin, eyes or with the mucous membranes.

Except for tropical areas, leptospirosis cases have a relatively distinct seasonality with most of them occurring August through September (in the Northern Hemisphere).

                       Leptospirosis is worldwide. However, it is most commonly acquired in the tropics. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately 100 cases of leptospirosis are reported each year in the United States.


Leptospirosis symptoms begin from 2 to 25 days after initial direct exposure to the urine or tissue of an infected animal. This can even occur via contaminated soil or water. Veterinarians and farm workers are at particularly high risk.

  • Incubation period of 2 to 26 days (average 10 days)

                    The illness typically progresses through three phases.

                               The first phase of symptoms includes headaches, muscle aches, eye pain with bright lights, followed by chills and fever. Watering and redness of the eyes occur and symptoms seem to improve by day 5 to 9.

                               The second phase of illness begins after a few days of feeling pretty well. The initial symptoms recur with fever and aching with stiffness of the neck. Some patients develop serious inflammation of the nerve to the eye, brain, spinal column (meningitis), or other nerves.

                                The final third phase, from 2 to 4 weeks after the initial infection, features recurrent fever and muscle aching. Less common symptoms relate to disease of the gallbladder, lungs, and heart.Approximately 7 to 40% of patients may have muscle tenderness, an enlarged spleen or liver, enlarged lymph glands, sore throat, muscle rigidity, abnormal lung sounds, or skin rash

                                Leptospirosis with liver disease is called Weil's syndrome and is characterized by yellowing of the eyes (jaundice) from liver disease. Patients with Weil's syndrome can also develop kidney disease and have more serious involvement of the organs affected.

other symptoms

Less common symptoms include joint aches, bone pain, sore throat, and abdominal pain

Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea (50% of cases)

Dry cough (25-35% of cases)

Abrupt onset of fever, rigors, myalgias, and headache in 75 to 100% of patients

Signs and tests 

  • White blood cell (WBC) counts are generally less than 10,000.
  • Urinalysis frequently is abnormal.
  • Elevated creatine kinase is found in approximately 50% of patients.
  • About 40% of patients have minimal to moderate elevations of liver enzymes.
  • Diagnosis is most frequently made by serologic (antibody) testing.
  • Bacteria is best visualized by dark field microscopy, silver stain, or fluorescent microscopy.
  • Unlike Treponema pallidum, Leptospira can be grown from blood, urine, and CSF. It is slow growing and the laboratory needs to be notified.
  • Isolation of the organism from the blood is successful in 50% of cases.
  • Urine cultures become positive during the second week of the illness and remain so for up to 30 days.

 Complications include meningitis, respiratory distress and renal interstitial tubular necrosis, which results in renal failure and often liver failure (this severe form of the disease is known as Weil's disease). Cardiovascular problems are also possible. Approximately 5-50% of severe leptospirosis cases are fatal, however, such cases only constitute about 10% of all registered incidents.


Based on genus epidemicus in case of epidemic

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