( A Caring Hand For Suffering Person)

Help Line

Learning Disabilities

Learning disabilities and treatment we offer in our clinic



Learning disabilities are neurologically-based processing problems. These processing problems can interfere with learning basic skills such as reading, writing and/or math.  They can also interfere with higher level skills such as organization, time planning, abstract reasoning, long or short term memory and attention.  It is important to realize that learning disabilities can affect an individual’s life beyond academics and can impact relationships with family, friends and in the workplace.

Since difficulties with reading, writing and/or math are recognizable problems during the school years, the signs and symptoms of learning disabilities are most often diagnosed during that time.  However, some individuals do not receive an evaluation until they are in post-secondary education or adults in the workforce.  Other individuals with learning disabilities may never receive an evaluation and go through life, never knowing why they have difficulties with academics and why they may be having problems in their jobs or in relationships with family and friends.

Learning disabilities should not be confused with learning problems which are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor handicaps; of mental retardation; of emotional disturbance; or of environmental, cultural or economic disadvantages.

Generally speaking

  • People with learning disabilities are of average or above average intelligence. There often appears to be a gap between the individual’s potential and actual achievement. This is why learning disabilities are referred to as “hidden disabilities”: the person looks perfectly “normal” and seems to be a very bright and intelligent person, yet may be unable to demonstrate the skill level expected from someone of a similar age.

  • A learning disability cannot be cured or fixed; it is a lifelong challenge. However, with appropriate support and intervention, and homoeopathic medicine help people with learning disabilities can achieve success in school, at work, in relationships, and in the community.

  • In Federal law, under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), the term is “specific learning disability,” one of 13 categories of disability under that law.

  • “Learning Disabilities” is an “umbrella” term describing a number of other, more specific learning disabilities, such as dyslexia and dysgraphia. Find the signs and symptoms of each, plus strategies to help below.

Specific Learning Disabilities

  Auditory Processing Disorder (APD)

Also known as Central Auditory Processing Disorder, this is a condition that adversely affects how sound that travels unimpeded through the ear is processed or interpreted by the brain. Individuals with APD do not recognize subtle differences between sounds in words, even when the sounds are loud and clear enough to be heard. They can also find it difficult to tell where sounds are coming from, to make sense of the order of sounds, or to block out competing background noises.

Signs and Symptoms

  1. Has difficulty processing and remembering language-related tasks but may have no trouble interpreting or recalling non-verbal environmental sounds, music, etc.
  2. May process thoughts and ideas slowly and have difficulty explaining them
  3. Misspells and mispronounces similar-sounding words or omits syllables; confuses similar-sounding words (celery/salary; belt/built; three/free; jab/job; bash/batch)
  4. May be confused by figurative language (metaphor, similes) or misunderstand puns and jokes; interprets words too literally
  5. Often is distracted by background sounds/noises
  6. Finds it difficult to stay focused on or remember a verbal presentation or lecture
  7. May misinterpret or have difficulty remembering oral directions; difficulty following directions in a series
  8. Has difficulty comprehending complex sentence structure or rapid speech
  9. “Ignores” people, especially if engrossed
  10. Says “What?” a lot, even when has heard much of what was said


  • Show rather than explain
  • Supplement with more intact senses (use visual cues, signals, handouts, manipulative)
  • Reduce or space directions, give cues such as “ready?”
  • Reword or help decipher confusing oral and/or written directions
  • Teach abstract vocabulary, word roots, synonyms/antonyms
  • Vary pitch and tone of voice, alter pace, stress key words
  • Ask specific questions as you teach to find out if they do understand
  • Allow them 5-6 seconds to respond (“think time”)
  • Have the student constantly verbalize concepts, vocabulary words, rules, etc.

Homoeopathic management of childhood Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) in our clinic

Mangement of  APD involves appropariate homoeopathic drugs considering the totality of the patient. A HOMOEOPATHIC BOOK CALLED SYNTHESIS REPERTORY gives treatment for variety of symptoms invoving  APD. Management of APD should incorporate three primary principles: (1) environmental modifications, (2) HOMOEOPATHIC remediation (direct therapy) techniques, and (3) compensatory strategies. All three of these components are necessary for APD intervention to be effective. In addition, the details of each component should be deficit-specific; that is, they should be developed specifically for the person with APD and the unique circumstances of his or her learning or communicative difficulties and needs.

Environmental modifications consist of changing the learning or working environment so that access to verbally presented information is maximized. Remember, a child is in the classroom to learn, be it science, social studies, mathematics, or language arts. An adult is in the workplace to work, to get a job done, to further a career. These environments have their own intrinsic challenges. We do not want an additional challenge — such as coping with an auditory deficit-to interfere with the primary objectives of school or work. We don't want the person to be honing auditory skills when he or she should be focusing on learning the digestive system or developing an advertising campaign. Therefore, we must develop ways of making the information more accessible to the person with APD. The first component of any APD management program should be to modify the environment. The modifications indicated will depend on whether the person with APD is in school, working for a living, or at home with family and friends. Remember, these environmental modifications are not intended to remediate, or fix, the disorder. They are employed to provide an environment that is user (or listener-) friendly so that access to information is improved.

HOMOEOPATHIC Remediation, on the other hand, should be challenging and should focus on the symptoms of auditory deficit itself. Through clearly defined therapy techniques, we hope to train specific auditory and listening skills and change the way the brain processes auditory information, hopefully to ameliorate the condition. The therapy environment should therefore be separate from the learning or work environment. Here are some of the symptoms and the remedies given in synthesis.

·        Child who has difficulties in handling languages there are 5 remedies mentioned in mind chapter.

·        Mind slowness mind and thought are slow which has 114 remedies

·        67 different symptoms of speech difficulties are mentioned in synthesis in mind chapter.

·        Around 257 remedies are there for hearing impaired and its variants.

Some people with APD will continue to experience symptoms of their disorder even after remediation, it is important that they learn methods of living with the disorder. Thus, the teaching of compensatory strategies is an important, but often overlooked, component of the overall management program.


A specific learning disability that affects a person’s ability to understand numbers and learn math facts. Individuals with this type of LD may also have poor comprehension of math symbols, may struggle with memorizing and organizing numbers, have difficulty telling time, or have trouble with counting.

Signs and Symptoms

  • Shows difficulty understanding concepts of place value, and quantity, number lines, positive and negative value, carrying and borrowing

  • Has difficulty understanding and doing word problems

  • Has difficulty sequencing information or events

  • Exhibits difficulty using steps involved in math operations

  • Shows difficulty understanding fractions

  • Is challenged making change and handling money

  • Displays difficulty recognizing patterns when adding, subtracting, multiplying, or dividing

  • Has difficulty putting language to math processes

  • Has difficulty understanding concepts related to time such as days, weeks, months, seasons, quarters, etc.

  • Exhibits difficulty organizing problems on the page, keeping numbers lined up, following through on long division problems


  • Allow use of fingers and scratch paper

  • Use diagrams and draw math concepts

  • Provide peer assistance

  • Suggest use of graph paper

  • Suggest use of colored pencils to differentiate problems

  • Work with manipulative

  • Draw pictures of word problems

  • Use mnemonic devices to learn steps of a math concept

  • Use rhythm and music to teach math facts and to set steps to a beat

  • Schedule computer time for the student for drill and practice

Homoeopathic management of childhood Dyscalculia in our clinic

Symptoms and the remedies of dyscalulia are  given in synthesis repertory  in  chapter mind in mathematics inability to which has 11 remedies. if calculation is difficult it has 20 remedies. if summing up is difficult it has 4 remedies. Mistakes  making during calculation  has about 30 remedies.


A specific learning disability that affects a person’s handwriting ability and fine motor skills. Problems may include illegible handwriting, inconsistent spacing, poor spatial planning on paper, poor spelling, and difficulty composing writing as well as thinking and writing at the same time.

Signs and Symptoms

  • May have illegible printing and cursive writing (despite appropriate time and attention given the task)
  • Shows inconsistencies: mixtures of print and cursive, upper and lower case, or irregular sizes, shapes or slant of letters
  • Has unfinished words or letters, omitted words
  • Inconsistent spacing between words and letters
  • Exhibits strange wrist, body or paper position
  • Has difficulty pre-visualizing letter formation
  • Copying or writing is slow or labored
  • Shows poor spatial planning on paper
  • Has cramped or unusual grip/may complain of sore hand
  • Has great difficulty thinking and writing at the same time (taking notes, creative writing.)


  • Suggest use of word processor
  • Avoid chastising student for sloppy, careless work
  • Use oral exams
  • Allow use of tape recorder for lectures
  • Allow the use of a note taker
  • Provide notes or outlines to reduce the amount of writing required
  • Reduce copying aspects of work (pre-printed math problems)
  • Allow use of wide rule paper and graph paper
  • Suggest use of pencil grips and /or specially designed writing aids
  • Provide alternatives to written assignments (video-taped reports, audio-taped reports)

  Go to Top

Homoeopathic management of childhood Dysgraphia in our clinic

Symptoms and the remedies of Dysgraphia are given in synthesis repertory in chapter mind. For major inability to write it mentions about 9 remedies. For difficulties in expressing ideas in writing there are about 18 remedies. Ten writing difficulties are mentioned under 10 different rubrics (symptoms)


A specific learning disability that affects reading and related language-based processing skills. The severity can differ in each individual but can affect reading fluency, decoding, reading comprehension, recall, writing, spelling, and sometimes speech and can exist along with other related disorders. Dyslexia is sometimes referred to as a Language-Based Learning Disability.

Signs and Symptoms

  • Reads slowly and painfully
  • Experiences decoding errors, especially with the order of letters
  • Shows wide disparity between listening comprehension and reading comprehension of some text
  • Has trouble with spelling
  • May have difficulty with handwriting
  • Exhibits difficulty recalling known words
  • Has difficulty with written language
  • May experience difficulty with math computations
  • Decoding real words is better than nonsense words
  • Substitutes one small sight word for another: a, I, he, the, there, was


  • Provide a quiet area for activities like reading, answering comprehension questions
  • Use books on tape
  • Use books with large print and big spaces between lines
  • Provide a copy of lecture notes
  • Don’t count spelling on history, science or other similar tests
  • Allow alternative forms for book reports
  • Allow the use of a laptop or other computer for in-class essays
  • Use multi-sensory teaching methods
  • Teach students to use logic rather than rote memory
  • Present material in small units

Homoeopathic management of childhood Dysgraphia in our clinic

Symptoms and the remedies of Dyslexia are given in synthesis repertory in chapter mind. It mentions about languages inability which has five remedies. In the mind chapter under dyslexia about 30 remedies are given

Language Processing Disorder

A specific type of Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) in which there is difficulty attaching meaning to sound groups that form words, sentences and stories. While an APD affects the interpretation of all sounds coming into the brain, a Language Processing Disorder (LPD) relates only to the processing of language. LPD can affect expressive language and/or receptive language.

Signs and Symptoms

  • Has difficulty gaining meaning from spoken language
  • Demonstrates poor written output
  • Exhibits poor reading comprehension
  • Shows difficulty expressing thoughts in verbal form
  • Has difficulty labeling objects or recognizing labels
  • Is often frustrated by having a lot to say and no way to say it
  • Feels that words are “right on the tip of my tongue”
  • Can describe an object and draw it, but can’t think of the word for it
  • May be depressed or having feelings of sadness
  • Has difficulty getting jokes


  • Speak slowly and clearly and use simple sentences to convey information
  • Refer to a speech pathologist
  • Allow tape recorder for note taking
  • Write main concepts on board
  • Provide support person or peer tutor
  • Use visualization techniques to enhance listening and comprehension
  • Use of graphic organizers for note taking from lectures or books
  • Use story starters for creative writing assignments
  • Practice story mapping
  • Draw out details with questions and visualization strategies

Homoeopathic management of childhood Language Processing Disorder in our clinic

Symptoms and the remedies of Language Processing Disorder are given in synthesis repertory in chapter mind. It mentions about languages inability which has five remedies. Most of the rubrics are related to language processing disorder is in chapter mind. Some of the related rubrics (in quotation) in synthesis repertory are

"Concentration difficult” which has 384 remedies
“Mistakes reading” has 24 remedies
“Mistakes speaking spelling” has around 40 remedies
“Mistakes writing” has 125 remedies
“Writing inability” for has 9 remedies

Non-Verbal Learning Disabilities

A disorder which is usually characterized by a significant discrepancy between higher verbal skills and weaker motor, visual-spatial and social skills. Typically, an individual with NLD (or NVLD) has trouble interpreting nonverbal cues like facial expressions or body language, and may have poor coordination.

Signs and Symptoms

  • Has trouble recognizing nonverbal cues such as facial expression or body language
  • Shows poor psycho-motor coordination; clumsy; seems to be constantly “getting in the way,” bumping into people and objects
  • Using fine motor skills a challenge: tying shoes, writing, using scissors
  • Needs to verbally label everything that happens to comprehend circumstances, spatial orientation, directional concepts and coordination; often lost or tardy
  • Has difficulty coping with changes in routing and transitions
  • Has difficulty generalizing previously learned information
  • Has difficulty following multi-step instructions
  • Make very literal translations
  • Asks too many questions, may be repetitive and inappropriately interrupt the flow of a lesson
  • Imparts the “illusion of competence” because of the student’s strong verbal skills


  • Rehearse getting from place to place
  • Minimize transitions and give several verbal cues before transition
  • Avoid assuming the student will automatically generalize instructions or concepts
  • Verbally point out similarities, differences and connections; number and present instructions in sequence; simplify and break down abstract concepts, explain metaphors, nuances and multiple meanings in reading material
  • Answer the student’s questions when possible, but let them know a specific number (three vs. a few) and that you can answer three more at recess, or after school
  • Allow the child to abstain from participating in activities at signs of overload
  • Thoroughly prepare the child in advance for field trips, or other changes, regardless of how minimal Implement a modified schedule or creative programming
  • Never assume child understands something because he or she can “parrot back” what you’ve just said
  • Offer added verbal explanations when the child seems lost or registers confusion

  Go to Top

Homoeopathic management of childhood Non-Verbal Learning Disabilities in our clinic

Symptoms and the remedies of Non-Verbal Learning Disabilities are given in synthesis repertory in chapter mind. Some of the related rubrics (in quotation) in synthesis repertory are

"awkward” which has about 90 remedies. The word meaning of awkward is Lacking grace or skill in manner or movement or performance.eg- "an awkward dancer"; "an awkward gesture"; "too awkward with a needle to make her own clothes"; "his clumsy fingers produced an awkward knot". The symptoms awkward covers difficulties using fine motor skills a challenge: tying shoes, writing, using scissors

“Concentration difficult conversation during” has about 32 remedies.

“mistakes making- differentiating  objects in” has about 9 remedies.

“mistakes making perception of” has about 10 remedies.

“mistake making in  space in, time” has about 13 remedies

Visual Perceptual/Visual Motor Deficit

A disorder that affects the understanding of information that a person sees, or the ability to draw or copy. A characteristic seen in people with learning disabilities such as Dysgraphia or Non-verbal LD, it can result in missing subtle differences in shapes or printed letters, losing place frequently, struggles with cutting, holding pencil too tightly, or poor eye/hand coordination.

Signs and Symptoms

  • May have reversals: b for d, p for q or inversions: u for n, w for m
  • Has difficulty negotiating around campus
  • Complains eyes hurt and itch, rubs eyes, complains print blurs while reading
  • Turns head when reading across page or holds paper at odd angles
  • Closes one eye while working, may yawn while reading
  • Cannot copy accurately
  • Loses place frequently
  • Does not recognize an object/word if only part of it is shown
  • Holds pencil too tightly; often breaks pencil point/crayons
  • Struggles to cut or paste
  • Misaligns letters; may have messy papers, which can include letters colliding, irregular spacing, letters not on line


  • Avoid grading handwriting
  • Allow students to dictate creative stories
  • Provide alternative for written assignments
  • Suggest use of pencil grips and specially designed pencils and pens
  • Allow use of computer or word processor
  • Restrict copying tasks
  • Provide tracking tools: ruler, text windows
  • Use large print books
  • Plan to order or check out books on tape
  • Experiment with different paper types: pastels, graph, embossed raised line paper

  Go to Top

Homoeopathic management of Visual Perceptual/Visual Motor Deficit in our clinic

Symptoms and the remedies of Visual Perceptual/Visual Motor Deficit are given in synthesis repertory in chapter mind. Some of the related rubrics (in quotation) in synthesis repertory are
“Vision impaired or dim” has about 274 remedies.
“Vision blurred” has about 116 remedies.

Related Disorders of children

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder/ Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD, ADD)

It is a neuro developmental psychiatric disorder in which there are significant problems with executive functions (e.g.,attentional control and inhibitory control) that cause attention deficits, hyperactivity, or impulsiveness which is not appropriate for a person's age.. A disorder in which a person is unable to control behavior due to difficulty in processing neural stimuli, accompanied by an extremely high level of motor activity. Although ADHD is not considered a learning disability, research indicates that from 30-50 percent of children with ADHD also have a specific learning disability, and that the two conditions can interact to make learning extremely challenging. Here are three groups of symptoms OF ADHD OR ADD:

  1. Inattention
  2. Hyperactivity
  3. Impulsivity

1. Inattention

Inattentive  person might procrastinate, not complete tasks like homework or chores, or frequently move from one uncompleted activity to another.
They might also:

  • Be disorganized
  • Lack focus
  • Have a hard time paying attention to details and a tendency to make careless mistakes. Their work might be messy and seem careless.
  • Have trouble staying on topic while talking, not listening to others, and not following social rules
  • Be forgetful about daily activities (for example, missing appointments, forgetting to bring lunch)
  • Be easily distracted by things like trivial noises or events that are usually ignored by others.

Children who have symptoms of inattention may:

  • Be easily distracted, miss details, forget things, and frequently switch from one activity to another
  • Have difficulty focusing on one thing
  • Become bored with a task after only a few minutes, unless they are doing something enjoyable
  • Have difficulty focusing attention on organizing and completing a task or learning something new
  • Have trouble completing or turning in homework assignments, often losing things (e.g., pencils, toys, assignments) needed to complete tasks or activities
  • Not seem to listen when spoken to
  • Daydream, become easily confused, and move slowly
  • Have difficulty processing information as quickly and accurately as others
  • Struggle to follow instructions.

2. Hyperactivity

It may vary with age. You might be able to notice it in preschoolers. ADHD symptoms nearly always show up before middle school.
Kids with hyperactivity may:

  • Get up frequently to walk or run around.
  • Run or climb a lot when it's not appropriate. (In teens this may seem like restlessness.)
  • Have trouble playing quietly or doing quiet hobbies
  • Always be "on the go"
  • Talk excessively
  • Dash around, touching or playing with anything and everything in sight
  • Have trouble sitting still during dinner, school, and story time
  • Have difficulty doing quiet tasks or activities.

Toddlers and preschoolers with ADHD tend to be constantly in motion, jumping on furniture and having trouble participating in group activities that call for them to sit still. For instance, they may have a hard time listening to a story.
School-age children have similar habits, but you may notice those less often. They are unable to stay seated, squirm a lot, fidget, or talk a lot.
Hyperactivity can show up as feelings of restlessness in teens and adults. They may also have a hard time doing quiet activities where you sit still.

3. Impulsivity

Symptoms of this include:

  • Impatience
  • Having a hard time waiting to talk or react
  • Blurt out inappropriate comments, show their emotions without restraint, and act without regard for consequences
  • Have difficulty waiting for things they want or waiting their turns in games
  • Often interrupt conversations or others' activities.

Homoeopathic management of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in our clinic

Symptoms and the remedies of Attention Deficit Disorder are given in synthesis repertory in chapter mind.

No.1:  Trouble Getting Organized
For people with ADHD, the responsibilities of adulthood -- bills, jobs, and children, to name a few -- can make problems with organization more obvious and more problematic than in childhood.
Some of the related rubrics (in quotation) in synthesis repertory mind chapter are
Responsibility aversion to” has about 13 remedies

No. 2: Reckless Driving and Traffic Accidents
ADHD makes it hard to keep your attention on a task, so spending time behind the wheel of a car can be hard. ADHD symptoms can make some people more likely to speed, have traffic accidents, and lose their driver’s licenses.
Some of the related rubrics (in quotation) in synthesis repertory mind chapter are
Concentration difficult driving while” has about 14 remedies. concentration difficult in various task are given in repertory. Considering  Concentration in general  “Concentration difficult’ has about 384 remedies.

No. 3: Marital Trouble
Many people without ADHD have marital problems, so a troubled marriage shouldn’t necessarily be seen as a red flag for adult ADHD. But there are some marriage problems that are likely to affect the relationships of those with ADHD. Often, the partners of people with undiagnosed ADHD take poor listening skills and an inability to honor commitments as a sign that their partner doesn’t care. If you’re the person with ADHD, you may not understand why your partner is upset, and you may feel you’re being nagged or blamed for something that’s not your fault.
Some of the related rubrics (in quotation) in synthesis repertory mind chapter are
Responsibility aversion to” has about 13 remedies
Dullness” has  450 remedies. Dullness covers poor listening skills and an inability to honor commitments..

No. 4: Extremely Distractible
ADHD is a problem with attention, so adult ADHD can make it hard to succeed in today’s fast-paced, hustle-bustle world. Many people find that distractibility can lead to a history of career under-performance, especially in noisy or busy offices. If you have adult ADHD, you might find that phone calls or email derail your attention, making it hard for you to finish tasks.
Some of the related rubrics (in quotation) in synthesis repertory mind chapter are
Dullness” has about 450 remedies.
Concentration difficult working while” has about 13 remedies.

No. 5: Poor Listening Skills
Do you zone out during long business meetings? Did your husband forget to pick up your child at baseball practice, even though you called to remind him on his way home? Problems with attention result in poor listening skills in many adults with ADHD, leading to a lot of missed appointments and misunderstandings.

 Some of the related rubrics (in quotation) in synthesis repertory mind chapter are
Absent minded” is the rubric (symptom) for poor listening skills which has about 230 remedies. Eg:- forget to pick up your child at baseball practice, even though you called to remind him on his way home

 No. 6: Restlessness, Trouble Relaxing
While many children with ADHD are “hyperactive,” this ADHD symptom often appears differently in adults. Rather than bouncing off the walls, adults with ADHD are more likely to be restless or find they can’t relax. If you have adult ADHD, others might describe you as edgy or tense.
Some of the related rubrics (in quotation) in synthesis repertory mind chapter are
Restlessness “has 541 remedies in synthesis. Other rubric include
Activity restless “which has 14 remedies. When someone does all his work without resting.

No. 7: Trouble Starting a Task
Just as children with ADHD often put off doing homework, adults with ADHD often drag their feet when starting tasks that require a lot of attention. This procrastination often adds to existing problems, including marital disagreements, workplace issues, and problems with friends.

Some of the related rubrics (in quotation) in synthesis repertory mind chapter  are
Postponing everything to next day” is the rubrics which has about 39 remedies.
Fear undertaking  anything of” is the rubric which has 12 remedies

No. 8: Lateness
There are many reasons for this. First, adults with ADHD are often distracted on the way to an event, maybe realizing the car needs to be washed and then noticing they’re low on gas, and before they know it an hour has gone by. People with adult ADHD also tend to underestimate how much time it takes to finish a task, whether it’s a major assignment at work or a simple home repair.
Some of the related rubrics (in quotation) in synthesis repertory mind chapter are
Too late always” has about 84 remedies

No. 9: Angry Outbursts
ADHD often leads to problems with controlling emotions. Many people with adult ADHD are quick to explode over minor problems. Often, they feel as if they have no control over their emotions. Many times, their anger fades as quickly as it flared, long before the people who dealt with the outburst have gotten over the incident.
Some of the related rubrics (in quotation) in synthesis repertory mind chapter are
Anger trifles at” has 91 remedies
Anger violent” has 108 remedies. When out burst of anger turns into destructive mentality.

No. 10: Prioritizing Issues
Often, people with adult ADHD mis-prioritize, failing to meet big obligations, like a deadline at work, while spending countless hours on something insignificant.
Some of the related rubrics (in quotation) in synthesis repertory are
“Too late always” has about 84 remedies

Executive Functioning

An inefficiency in the cognitive management systems of the brain that affects a variety of neuropsychological processes such as planning, organization, strategizing, paying attention to and remembering details, and managing time and space. Although not a learning disability, different patterns of weakness in executive functioning are almost always seen in the learning profiles of individuals who have specific learning disabilities or ADHD.



Three types of memory are important to learning. Working memory, short-term memory and long-term memory are used in the processing of both verbal and non-verbal information. If there are deficits in any or all of these types of memory, the ability to store and retrieve information required to carry out tasks can be impaired. Homeopathy improves memory problems.





  1. Transience

  2. Absentm

  3. Blocking

  4. Misattribution

  5. Suggestibility

  6. Bias

  7. Persistence

1. Transience

This is the tendency to forget facts or events over time. You are most likely to forget information soon after you learn it. However, memory has a use-it-or-lose-it quality: memories that are called up and used frequently are least likely to be forgotten. Although transience might seem like a sign of memory weakness, brain scientists regard it as beneficial because it clears the brain of unused memories, making way for newer, more useful ones.

2. Absentmindedness

This type of forgetting occurs when you don't pay close enough attention. You forget where you just put your pen because you didn't focus on where you put it in the first place. You were thinking of something else (or, perhaps, nothing in particular), so your brain didn't encode the information securely. Absentmindedness also involves forgetting to do something at a prescribed time, like taking your medicine or keeping an appointment.

3. Blocking

Someone asks you a question and the answer is right on the tip of your tongue — you know that you know it, but you just can't think of it. This is perhaps the most familiar example of blocking, the temporary inability to retrieve a memory. In many cases, the barrier is a memory similar to the one you're looking for, and you retrieve the wrong one. This competing memory is so intrusive that you can't think of the memory you want.
Scientists think that memory blocks become more common with age and that they account for the trouble older people have remembering other people's names. Research shows that people are able to retrieve about half of the blocked memories within just a minute.

4. Misattribution

Misattribution occurs when you remember something accurately in part, but misattribute some detail, like the time, place, or person involved. Another kind of misattribution occurs when you believe a thought you had was totally original when, in fact, it came from something you had previously read or heard but had forgotten about. This sort of misattribution explains cases of unintentional plagiarism, in which a writer passes off some information as original when he or she actually read it somewhere before.
As with several other kinds of memory lapses, misattribution becomes more common with age. As you age, you absorb fewer details when acquiring information because you have somewhat more trouble concentrating and processing information rapidly. And as you grow older, your memories grow older as well. And old memories are especially prone to misattribution.

5. Suggestibility

Suggestibility is the vulnerability of your memory to the power of suggestion — information that you learn about an occurrence after the fact becomes incorporated into your memory of the incident, even though you did not experience these details. Although little is known about exactly how suggestibility works in the brain, the suggestion fools your mind into thinking it's a real memory.

6. Bias

Even the sharpest memory isn't a flawless snapshot of reality. In your memory, your perceptions are filtered by your personal biases — experiences, beliefs, prior knowledge, and even your mood at the moment. Your biases affect your perceptions and experiences when they're being encoded in your brain. And when you retrieve a memory, your mood and other biases at that moment can influence what information you actually recall.
Although everyone's attitudes and preconceived notions bias their memories, there's been virtually no research on the brain mechanisms behind memory bias or whether it becomes more common with age.

7. Persistence

Most people worry about forgetting things. But in some cases people are tormented by memories they wish they could forget, but can't. The persistence of memories of traumatic events, negative feelings, and ongoing fears is another form of memory problem. Some of these memories accurately reflect horrifying events, while others may be negative distortions of reality.
People suffering from depression are particularly prone to having persistent, disturbing memories. So are people with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD can result from many different forms of traumatic exposure — for example, sexual abuse or wartime experiences. Flashbacks, which are persistent, intrusive memories of the traumatic event, are a core feature of PTSD.


  Go to Top

Home About Us Diseases Profile Research Articles FAQ Contact Us
Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) Dyscalculia Dysgraphia Dyslexia Language Processing Disorder Non-Verbal Learning Disabilities Visual Perceptual/Visual Motor Deficit Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder/ Attention Deficit Disorder